Search this Topic:
Feb 20 15 12:11 AM
Feb 20 15 6:33 AM
Feb 20 15 6:42 AM
Feb 20 15 11:44 AM
Feb 20 15 7:08 PM
Feb 20 15 7:23 PM
Nicotine's Role in Failed Low Back Surgery"The role of smoking in causing pseudarthrosis has been well studied in lumbar spine fusions with up to a fourfold increase in nonunion rates from 8% to 40% for lumbar fusions. Nicotine has a direct inhibitory effect on autologous cancellous bone graft revascularization as well as an increased rate of bone graft necrosis in a rabbit model of bone graft implantation. Systemic nicotine has also been linked to nonunion in spinal fusion animal models." Source: http://www.springerlink.com/content/7r1k253384w92418/
Nicotine's Role in Failed Low Back Surgery
Does Smoking Influence Fusion Rates in PosteriorCervical Arthrodesis With Lateral Mass Instrumentation?
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print] Eubanks JD, Thorpe SW, Cheruvu VK, Braly BA, Kang JD. Abstract BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with reduced fusion rates after anterior cervical decompression and arthrodesis procedures. Posterior cervical arthrodesis procedures are believed to have a higher fusion rate than anterior procedures. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked whether smoking (1) would reduce the fusion rate in posterior cervical procedures; and (2) be associated with increased pain, decreased activity level, and a decreased rate of return of work as compared with nonsmokers. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 158 patients who had a posterior cervical fusion with lateral mass instrumentation and iliac crest bone grafting between 2003 and 2008. Fusion rates and Odom Criteria grades were compared among smokers and nonsmokers. The minimum followup was 3 months (average, 14.5 months; range, 3-72 months). RESULTS: Smokers and nonsmokers had similar fusion rates (100%). Although 80% of patients had Odom Criteria Grade I or II, smokers were five times more likely to have Grade III or IV with considerable limitation of physical activity. Age, gender, and diagnosis did not influence fusion rates or the Odom Criteria grade. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the effect of smoking on anterior cervical fusion, we found smoking did not decrease posterior cervical fusion with lateral mass instrumentation and iliac crest bone grafting. Posterior cervical fusion with lateral mass instrumentation should be considered over anterior procedures in smokers if the abnormality can appropriately be addressed from a posterior approach. http://www.springerlink.c...ontent/7r1k253384w92418/
"The Odom Criteria have been used for decades to grade clinical outcomes after cervical spine surgery. It takes into account the patient’s daily symptoms, activity level, and ability to return to work and grades them on a scale of I to IV: Grade I (excellent) = no cervical spine symptoms, daily activities not impaired; Grade II (good) = intermittent discomfort, no substantial interference with work activities; Grade III (fair) = subjective improvement but major limitations of physical activities; and Grade IV (poor) = no improvement or worse compared with the preoperative condition."
Feb 20 15 7:37 PM
Feb 20 15 7:49 PM
Feb 21 15 1:29 PM
Feb 21 15 3:33 PM
Feb 23 15 12:25 AM
Feb 23 15 2:12 AM
Feb 23 15 10:02 AM
Feb 23 15 11:00 PM
Feb 23 15 11:11 PM
Feb 23 15 11:48 PM
Feb 26 15 2:22 AM
Feb 26 15 9:58 AM
Feb 26 15 6:48 PM
Feb 26 15 6:55 PM
How do you feel about a friend who has to go everywhere with you? Not only does he tag along all the time, but since he is so offensive and vulgar, you become unwelcome when with him. He has a peculiar odor that sticks to you wherever you go. Others think both of you stink.
He controls you totally. When he says jump, you jump. Sometimes in the middle of a blizzard or storm, he wants you to come to the store and pick him up. You would give your spouse hell if he or she did that to you all the time, but you can't argue with your friend. Sometimes, when you are out at a movie or play he says he wants you to go stand in the lobby with him and miss important scenes. Since he calls all the shots in your life, you go.
Your friend doesn't like your choice of clothing either. Instead of politely telling you that you have lousy taste, he burns little holes in these items so you will want to throw them out. Sometimes, he tires of the furniture and gets rid of it too. Occasionally, he gets really nasty and decides the whole house must go.
He gets pretty expensive to support. Not only is his knack of property destruction costly, but you must pay to keep him with you. In fact, he will cost you thousands of dollars over your lifetime. And you can count on one thing, he will never pay you a penny in return.
Often at picnics you watch others playing vigorous activities and having lots of fun doing them. But your friend won't let you. He doesn't believe in physical activity. In his opinion, you are too old to have that kind of fun. So he kind of sits on your chest and makes it difficult for you to breathe. Now you don't want to go off and play with other people when you can't breathe, do you?
Your friend does not believe in being healthy. He is really repulsed by the thought of you living a long and productive life. So every chance he gets he makes you sick. He helps you catch colds and flu. Not just by running out in the middle of the lousy weather to pick him up at the store. He is more creative than that. He carries thousands of poisons with him which he constantly blows in your face. When you inhale some of them, they wipe out cilia in your lungs which would have helped you prevent these diseases.
But colds and flu are just his form of child's play. He especially likes diseases that slowly cripple you - like emphysema. He considers this disease great. Once he gets you to have this, you will give up all your other friends, family, career goals, activities - everything. You will just sit home and caress him, telling him what a great friend he is while you desperately gasp for air.
But eventually your friend tires of you. He decides he no longer wishes to have your company. Instead of letting you go your separate ways, he decides to kill you. He has a wonderful arsenal of weapons behind him. In fact, he has been plotting your death since the day you met him. He picked all the top killers in society and did everything in his power to ensure you would get one of them. He overworked your heart and lungs. He clogged up the arteries to your heart, brain, and every other part of your body. In case you were too strong to succumb to this, he constantly exposed you to cancer causing agents. He knew he would get you sooner or later.
Well, this is the story of your "friend," your cigarette. No real friend would do all this to you. Cigarettes are the worst possible enemies you ever had. They are expensive, addictive, socially unacceptable, and deadly. Consider all this and - NEVER TAKE ANOTHER PUFF!
Mar 1 15 11:03 PM
© 2017 Yuku. All rights reserved.