Search this Topic:
Oct 18 10 9:32 PM
A key question regarding the documented association between smoking and depression is whether it reflects a causal influence of smoking on depression; however, only a limited number of longitudinal studies exist in the literature, all of which have relatively short time frames. The purpose was to prospectively assess the risk of depression according to daily tobacco consumption in a Danish longitudinal study.
A prospective cohort study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 18,146), was analyzed with up to 26 years of follow-up. It contains three updated data sets on tobacco consumption and potential confounding factors. The study population was linked to Danish hospital registers to detect registrations with depression. Individuals with depression before baseline were excluded.
Women smoking more than 10 g of tobacco per day were at significantly increased risk of depression compared to women who did not smoke. The adjusted risk of depression among women smoking 11–20 g per day was 1.74 (CI:1.33–2.27) and 2.17 (CI:1.45–3.26) among women smoking more than 20 g per day. For men, there was an increased risk of depression for those smoking more than 20 g per day (HR = 1.90; CI:1.05–3.44). All tests for linear trend were significant (all p < 0.01). The estimates remained significant in sensitivity analyses aiming to eliminate reverse causation, and in analyses based on a reduced sample without individuals with chronic diseases or psychiatric disorders other than depression.
The study suggests that smoking is associated with increased risk of developing depression. This underlines the potentially harmful consequences of smoking for mental health and supports efforts to prevent and stop smoking.
PubMed Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20630542http://www.sciencedirect....science/journal/00223956
Oct 18 10 9:33 PM
Research on the comorbidity between cigarette smoking and major depression has not elucidated the pathways by which smoking is associated with depression.
To examine the causal relationships between smoking and depression via fixed-effects regression and structural equation modelling.
Data were gathered on nicotine-dependence symptoms and depressive symptoms in early adulthood using a birth cohort of over 1000 individuals.
Adjustment for confounding factors revealed persistent significant associations between nicotine-dependence symptoms and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modelling suggested that the best-fitting causal model was one in which nicotine dependence led to increased risk of depression. The findings suggest that the comorbidity between smoking and depression arises from two routes; the first involving common or correlated risk factors and the second a direct path in which smoking increases the risk of depression.
This evidence is consistent with the conclusion that there is a cause and effect relationship between smoking and depression in which cigarette smoking increases the risk of symptoms of depression. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cg...ntent/abstract/196/6/440
4:00 AM Wednesday Jun 2, 2010
Smoking may cause an increased risk of depression, according to a New Zealand study which has followed 1200 people since they were born in 1977.
Smoking and major depression have long been known to be linked.
But which is the primary cause has been unclear, and it is possible that they reinforce each other.
Studies have suggested that some people who have depression smoke as a form of self-medication.
Researchers from Otago University at Christchurch, led by Professor David Ferguson, analysed data collected when participants in their study were in the late teens to mid-20s.
They concluded it is probably smoking that increases the risk of suffering symptoms of major depression, rather than the reverse.
They found that at the age of:
* 18 years - 14 per cent of the study participants were addicted to nicotine and 18 per cent had serious depression.
* 21 years - 25 per cent were addicted and 18 per cent had depression.
* 25 years - 23 per cent were addicted and 14 per cent had depression.
"Overall, those reporting at least five symptoms of nicotine dependence had rates of depressive symptoms that were 2.13 times those of individuals who reported no symptoms of nicotine dependence," says the researchers' paper.
The findings were published yesterday in the British Journal of Psychiatry.
The paper says statistical calculations suggested the cause-and-effect link was one-way, from nicotine addiction to depression.
They found no evidence of a link in the reverse direction, from depression to smoking.
"The reasons for this relationship are not clear," said Professor Ferguson. "However, it's possible that nicotine causes changes to neurotransmitter activity in the brain, leading to an increased risk of depression."
Smoking is linked to an increased risk of: * Cancer * Heart disease * Stroke * Impotence * Probably severe depression
Oct 19 10 8:32 AM
THANKS FOR SHARING THIS JOHN! I always wondered about this! Makes perfect sense. I used to smoke when I felt depressed, now I find I feel less depressed everyday I choose not light one! I think smoking just piggy backs on all the emotions on feels. Absolutely does nothing to help our emotions truly heal.Again,,,, thank you!KellyTOMORROW I'M GREEN! :)
Oct 31 10 9:27 AM
Correspondence Tobacco smoking and depression: results of a cross-sectional study The British Journal of Psychiatry (2010) 197: 413-414 Vanessa Argondizo dos Santos, Ana Maria Migott, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, José Miguel Chatkin
A recent study by Boden et al concluded that there is a cause–effect relationship between cigarette smoking and depression in which tobacco use increases the risk of symptoms of depression. In a large longitudinal study, Kang & Lee showed that smoking caused depression. Shahab & West reported evidence from a cross-sectional survey that ex-smokers feel happier following cessation.
These results may have very important clinical consequences – if smokers can be reassured that their mood can be improved after smoking cessation, it could motivate patients in their attempts to quit. Our own data are consistent with such findings and with the current literature regarding the relationship between depression and smoking status as well as gender. We performed an investigation focusing on depression symptoms among 1021 unrelated blood donors categorised as former smokers, current smokers and never smokers. The sample distribution was: former smokers, n = 131; current smokers, n = 254; and never smokers, n = 636. Former smokers were individuals who had reached 6 months of tobacco abstinence. Using a cross-sectional design, the participants were selected during the period from October 2004 to August 2008. Inclusion criteria were: to be Brazilian of European descent, >=18 to <=65 years old, male or female and eligible for blood donation. Exclusion criteria included other addictions, current use of any psychopharmacological medication and major psychopathologies, except major depressive disorder. All participants completed a standardised self-report questionnaire that included demographic characteristics and a smoking history. Depression symptoms were evaluated by the Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).[4,5] The BDI scores were analysed as a continuous measure or as a cut-off of >=15 indicating depressive symptoms.
Level of education was higher among never smokers (n = 164, 25.8%) compared with current smokers (n = 40, 15.7%) and former smokers (n = 24, 18.3%) (chi24 = 21.56, P<0.001). This suggests that current and former smokers might share a premorbid behavioural profile different from never smokers. More current smokers had a BDI score >=15 (current smokers, n = 38, 15.0%; never smokers, n = 47, 7.4%; former smokers, n =9, 6.9%; chi22 = 13.43, P = 0.001). Average BDI scores were also higher among current smokers (mean 7.4, s.d. = 7.8) compared with never smokers (mean 5.2, s.d. = 6.5) and former smokers (mean 5.0, s.d. = 5.6) even after adjustment for gender, age and years of schooling (F = 10.93, P<0.001). There were no significant differences between former and never smokers on depression indices. There was no significant interaction between smoking status and gender – that is, females had higher depression scores than males, regardless of smoking status, pointing to the cross-gender validity of the association. Beck Depression Inventory scores were significantly correlated with Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores (r = 0.16, P = 0.01) and average daily number of cigarettes smoked (r = 0.16, P = 0.01). The results of our relatively large sample suggest that depression scores are lower among former smokers, despite the similar profiles in other characteristics such as education and gender across all three groups.
This issue has been raised by other authors. Wu & Anthony verified in a longitudinal study that although smoking increased the risk for depression, antecedent depressed mood was not associated with later cigarette smoking. A review by the National Institute of Mental Health pointed out the danger posed by over-reliance on the self-medication hypothesis. According to the authors, this misconception may have led to a grossly inadequate attention to tobacco-smoking in mental health settings. Munafò et al have suggested a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and depression.
The interpretation of our results should be cautious, since cause–effect relationships cannot be explained in cross-sectional studies, where recall bias is always a possibility. Former smokers may differ from current smokers both in terms of their primary depression and nicotine dependence severity. As Fagerström& Furberg6 pointed out, less dependent smokers may quit more easily and remaining dependent smokers may need more intensive treatment. Another scenario is that previous depressive symptoms might have predisposed some individuals to smoke, and when symptoms faded, they stopped smoking.
Our preliminary results are consistent with these findings, suggesting that former smokers have a better mood than current smokers. If confirmed in future follow-up studies, this evidence will certainly stimulate new approaches for smoking prevention in adolescence and smoking cessation techniques for adults. If smokers can be reassured that their mood may actually improve after smoking cessation, once the withdrawal syndrome has ended, this knowledge could motivate patients in their attempts to quit. We agree with this position and suggest that it is equally valid for both genders.
C.H.D.B. received funding from FAPERGS-DECIT-PPSUS and CNPq – Institutos do Milênio and J.M.C. received funding from FAPERGS-PSUS.
1. Boden JM, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Cigarette smoking and depression: tests of casual linkages using a longitudinal birth cohort. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 440 –6.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
2. Kang E, Lee J. A longitudinal study on the causal association between smoking and depression. J Prev Med Public Health 2010; 43: 193 –204.[CrossRef][Medline]
3. Shahab L, West R. Do ex-smokers report feeling happier following cessation? Evidence from a cross-sectional survey. Nicotine Tob Res 2009; 11: 553 –7.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
4. Beck AT, Steer RA, Garbin MG. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev 1988; 8: 77 –100.[CrossRef]
5. Gorenstein C, Andrade L. Validation of a Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in Brazilian subjects. Braz J Med Biol Res 1996; 29: 453 –7.[Medline] 6. Fagerström K, Furberg H. A comparison of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and smoking prevalence across countries. Addiction 2008; 103: 841 –5.[CrossRef][Medline]
7. Wu LT, Anthony JC. Tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence. Am J Public Health 1999; 89: 1837 –40.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
8. Ziedonis D, Hitsman B, Beckham JC, Zvolensky M, Adler LE, Audrain-McGovern J, et al. Tobacco use and cessation in psychiatric disorders: National Institute of Mental Health report. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10: 1691 –715.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
9. Munafò MR, Hitsman B, Rende R, Metcalfe C, Niaura R. Effects of progression to cigarette smoking on depressed mood in adolescents: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Addiction 2008; 103: 162 –71.[CrossRef][Medline]
10. Munafò MR, Araya R. Cigarette smoking and depression: a question of causation. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 425 –6.[Abstract/Free Full Text]
Study source link: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/197/5/413
© 2010 The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Jan 30 12 11:15 AM
Reports of bidirectional associations between smoking and major depression (MD) have been interpreted as providing evidence for confounding by shared-vulnerability factors (SV) that predispose individuals to both conditions. If this is true, then smoking cessation may not reduce the risk of MD. From clinical practice and public health perspectives, the long-term outcomes associated with smoking persistence and cessation are potentially important and deserve exploration. To this end, the 12-year risk of MD in persistent heavy smokers and abstainers who were former-heavy smokers with and without adjustment for potential confounders were compared.
Follow-up data from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) was used. Multinomial logistic (ML) models were fit to identify potential confounders. Using proportional hazard (PH) models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for MD outcome were estimated for different smoking patterns.
The unadjusted HR relating the risk of MD among current-heavy versus former-heavy smokers was 4.3 (95% CI: 2.6–6.9, p < 0.001). Current-heavy smoking predicted onset of MD (HR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9–5.2, p < 0.001) even after adjustment for age, sex and stress – the main confounders. However, this was not the case for the never, former-light, and current-light categories. Evidence of decreased risk of MD among former-heavy relative to current-heavy smokers as function of smoking cessation maintenance time was also found.
Contrary to common beliefs about the benefits of smoking for mental health, our results suggest that current-heavy rather than ever-heavy smoking is a major determinant of MD risk and point towards the benefits of smoking cessation maintenance.PubMed Abstract Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22277304
Apr 24 13 8:31 AM
Quitting smoking can significantly improve people’s mental health,
according to research, which has uncovered a series of important
Quit Victoria Executive Director Fiona Sharkie said the perception
that people with depression can’t or don’t want to quit is wrong.
the right support, not only can people with depression quit, but their
depression often improves,” she said. “We know that people often smoke
to ease stress or boost their mood, but the opposite is actually true.
Research has shown quitting smoking eases depressive symptoms and those
effects can last for as long as the smoker stays off the cigarettes.”
The research findings include:
- Smokers are more than twice as likely to report that they regularly
feel depressed when compared to ex-smokers who gave up six months
- Many people with depression quit successfully, but overall are a third less likely to do so than people who aren’t depressed.
Kate Carnell said the research has been used to create the free booklet
that is aimed at people with depression who want to quit. Ms Carnell
said that, despite seeming hard, quitting is the best thing smokers can
do for their health.
“We’ve always known the physical benefits of
giving up, but this study shows the impact that quitting smoking can
also have on people’s moods,” she said. “This study shows that while 37%
of smokers say they recently had a prolonged period of feeling down,
this number is more than halved to 16% among those who quit six months
ago. The figure is 34% for those who try to quit but fail within the
first six months, suggesting that even quitting temporarily has some
mental health benefits.
“This book advises people with depression
that they are capable of giving up cigarettes – just like people who
aren’t depressed. It gives information about why they smoke, how to make
a plan to quit and strategies they can use to quit once and for all. I
urge anyone with depression who smokes to order a copy of the booklet
and read it.”
The research was conducted by Dr Catherine Segan
from The University of Melbourne’s School of Population and Global
Health. For a six-month period, it tracked more than 800 people who
contacted Quitline for advice on how to quit, including a quarter with
The research found while people with depression found
it more challenging to quit than other people, many were still
successful, with one-third having quit successfully six months after
first contacting Quitline. This compared with about half of other
participants in the research who weren’t depressed.
On the down
side, the research also found that 18% of participants with depression
reported a significant increase in depression symptoms within two months
of quitting compared with 5% of people who had never been depressed.
However half of those who had an increase in depression symptoms said
they believed it was unrelated to the quit attempt. The research was
also unable to draw a direct link between any increase in depressive
symptoms and quitting.
Ms Carnell said the findings are a
reminder that people with depression who try to quit should do so in
consultation with their doctor.
“We know from the research that a
third of people with depression have quit successfully six months after
first contacting Quitline,” she said. “Quitting can be a challenge for
someone with depression, but as this research shows, it can be done.”Source link: http://www.beyondblue.org.au/media/media-releases/media-releases/research-shows-quitting-smoking-often-helps-depressionCopyright 2013 BeyondBlue
© 2017 Yuku. All rights reserved.