Smoking and Sleep
Power Spectral Analysis of EEG Activity
During Sleep in Cigarette Smokers
February 2008 - ChestLin Zhang, MD, PhD; Jonathan Samet, MD, MHS; Brian Caffo, PhD; Isaac Bankman, PhD and Naresh M. Punjabi, MD, PhD, FCCP
* From the Departments of Epidemiology (Drs. Zhang, Samet, and Punjabi) and Biostatistics (Dr. Caffo), and Applied Physics Laboratory (Dr. Bankman), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Correspondence to: Naresh M. Punjabi, MD, PhD, FCCP, Johns Hopkins University Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: Research on the effects of cigarette smoking on sleep architecture is limited. The objective of this investigation was to examine differences in sleep EEG between smokers and nonsmokers.
Methods: Smokers and nonsmokers who were free of all medical comorbidities were matched on different factors, including age, gender, race, body mass index, and anthropometric measures. Home polysomnography was conducted using a standard recording montage. Sleep architecture was assessed using visual sleep-stage scoring. The discrete fast Fourier transform was used to calculate the EEG power spectrum for the entire night within contiguous 30-s epochs of sleep for the following frequency bandwidths: (0.8 to 4.0 Hz); (4.1 to 8.0 Hz); (8.1 to 13.0 Hz); and β (13.1 to 20.0 Hz).
Results: Conventional sleep stages were similar between the two groups. However, spectral analysis of the sleep EEG showed that, compared to nonsmokers, smokers had a lower percentage of EEG power in the -bandwidth (59.7% vs 62.6%, respectively; p < 0.04) and higher percentage of EEG power in -bandwidth (15.6% vs 12.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Differences in the EEG power spectrum between smokers and nonsmokers were greatest in the early part of the sleep period and decreased toward the end. Subjective complaints of lack of restful sleep were also more prevalent in smokers than in nonsmokers (22.5% vs 5.0%, respectively; p < 0.02) and were explained, in part, by the differences in EEG spectral power.
Conclusions: Cigarette smokers manifest disturbances in the sleep EEG that are not evident in conventional measures of sleep architecture. Nicotine in cigarette smoke and withdrawal from it during sleep may contribute to these changes and the subjective experience of nonrestorative sleep.
Key Words: cigarette smoking • power spectral analysis • sleep architecture
Copyright © 2008 by the American College of Chest Physicians.
Smoking linked to sleep disturbances: StudyTheStar.com - Toronto Star - February 12, 2008
Study: Smoking is linked to sleep disturbances, according to a study by Dr. Naresh Punjabi of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore. His findings appear in the February issue of the journal Chest.
Method: Punjabi and his colleagues compared the sleep patterns of 40 smokers with a matched group of 40 non-smokers. Using home poly-somnography, the researchers measured sleep cycles and stages by recording brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, breathing rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation and heart rhythm. Both groups were free of most medical conditions and not on any medication.
Background: Most people are aware of the impact of smoking on respiratory and cardiovascular health, but few consider its effect on how rested they feel when they get up. Smokers trying to quit, however, often report sleep disturbances.
Claim: Smokers spend less time in deep sleep and more time in light sleep than non-smokers. The greatest differences in sleep patterns occur in the early stages of sleep when nicotine's stimulant effect is strongest. Researchers suggest smokers may suffer nicotine withdrawal every night, which contributes to restless sleep. Smokers may also prevent sleep from repairing and rejuvenating their bodies.
Prescription: Quit smoking or, better yet, never to take it up.
© Copyright Toronto Star 1996-2008
Source Link: http://www.thestar.com/living/article/302510
Recent Smoking & Sleep Findings
- CONCLUSION: An acute episode of smoking by lactating mothers altered infants' sleep/wake patterning - Sept. 2007 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17766521
- CONCLUSION: There is a synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and sleep apnea on some of the biochemical cardiovascular risk markers. Patients with severe sleep apnea who smoke are at a greater cardiovascular risk than smokers with mild-moderate sleep apnea and patients who do not smoke - May 2007 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513169
- CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that cigarette smoking is independently associated with disturbances in sleep architecture, including a longer latency to sleep onset and a shift toward lighter stages of sleep. Nicotine in cigarette smoke and acute withdrawal from it may contribute to disturbances in sleep architecture - Sept. 2006 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16829553
- CONCLUSION: CONCLUSIONS: Due to a decreased overall rate of SIDS likely due to changing infant sleep position, the attributed risk associating maternal smoking and SIDS has increased following the Back to Sleep campaign. Mothers should be informed of the 2-fold increased rate of SIDS associated with maternal cigarette consumption. Jan. 2005 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15644131