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European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003 Dec;57(12):1569-78
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Box 459, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To relate meal pattern of Swedish adolescents to food choice, nutrient intake and other lifestyle factors.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study including diet history and interview about smoking, ethnicity, social factors and retrospectively collected data of menarche
and growth. SETTING: School setting, Göteborg, Sweden.
SUBJECTS: A total of 611 boys and 634 girls in grade 9 (15-16 y).
RESULTS: The majority of the students, 65% of the boys and 52% of the girls, consumed three main meals daily. The in-between meals, however, contributed
the major part of the energy intake. The energy intake was 12.93.5 MJ (means.d.) for boys and 9.02.5 MJ for girls. Irregular
breakfast eating, 12% of the boys and 24% of the girls, was related to negative lifestyle factors where smoking was the strongest, odds ratio 3.8 (95% CI: 2.6-5.4) and to irregular intake of lunch and dinner. These boys
and girls had a food choice including a higher percentage of energy from snack food (26% vs 20% and 19% in boys and girls respectively, all P<0.001),
mostly consumed between the main meals. These groups had significantly lower intakes of micronutrients, but higher intakes of sucrose and alcohol compared to
the groups with regular breakfast intake. Girls omitting breakfasts and lunches (8%) also had a less healthy food choice and the poorest nutrient intake.
These girls had matured earlier, with menarche age of 12.21.1 y vs 12.91.0 y (P<0.001) in girls with regular main meal intake.
CONCLUSIONS: Meal pattern with omission of breakfast or breakfast and lunch was related to a clustering of less healthy lifestyle factors and food choice
leading to a poorer nutrient intake.
SPONSORSHIP: The Swedish Medical Research Council (project B94-19X-04721-19A), the Swedish Mill Industry and the Wilhelm and Martina Lundgren
PMID: 14647222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Jun 2 08 5:30 PM
Authors: Urberg M, Shammas R, Rajdev K.
Department of Family Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.
Cigarette smoking has been causally linked to atherosclerotic heart disease. The mechanism by which cigarette smoking causes heart disease has not, however,
been determined. Nicotine has been shown to lead to increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine following smoking. Catecholamines have been shown to
lead to increases in blood glucose.
This paper demonstrates that cigarette smoking is associated with increases in average blood glucose as measured by glycosylated hemoglobin levels in
smokers compared with nonsmokers.
Fifteen nondiabetic smokers had an average glycosylated hemoglobin of 6.82% (SD = 1.06%), which is higher than the 5.63% (SD = .49%, t = 3.98, P less than
.001) found for 23 nonsmokers. The average glycosylated hemoglobin level of the smokers is in the range found for patients with well-controlled diabetes.
These data suggest that elevated blood glucose may contribute to atherogenesis in cigarette smokers.
PMID: 2597247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2597247
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